Translated by Shaimaa Behery
The pledge of allegiance represents a pillar in the political Islam currents and groups. It is the bind that controls the behavior of followers and guarantees loyalty and docility for the organization.
Such pledge means absolute submission to the Emir of the group, and not to dispute him in the emirate while adhering to the various decisions issued by him without discussion or thinking, even if these decisions contradict reason and logic. .
All the currents of political Islam have internal pledges not only one, especially in organizations of hierarchical ranks inside such as Muslim Brotherhood and its armed section, al – Qaeda and (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) ISIS.
While these Islamic entities agree on number of intellectual and ethical principles, they agree that such pledge of allegiance can’t be for women. Woman is excluded from this code.
Muslim Brotherhood group is one of the early currents of political Islam in the modern era that used the “pledge of allegiance “with its members. In this regard, Hassan al – Banna said in the instructions message:
“There are ten pillars for our pledge you have to read by heart: understanding and sincerity, work, jihad, sacrifice, obedience, persistence, impartiality, brotherhood, and trust. “
He explained the first pillar of the pledge named as “understanding” saying:
” by understanding, we mean that you be sure that our idea is Islamic and to understand Islam the same way we understand , in the limits of these twenty bases”
This concept is prevailed in view of the text of the allegiance pledge of the Muslim Brotherhood group, which says : ” I promise to God Who alone is the Exalted and the Grand to uphold the message of the Muslim Brotherhood, to strive through the jihad in achieving its goals, to meet the requirements of its membership, to have full confidence in its full leadership, to listen and obey for better and worse and for thick and thin , and I swear by God Almighty on this and I pledge to commit and the God is witness to all what we say and whoever breaks his pledge breaks it to his own loss and whoever fulfills his covenant with God, He will grant him a great reward.”
According to Hassan Elbanna, the member” shall boycott all civil courts and all non – Islamic courts, clubs, newspapers, groups, schools and organizations that oppose your Islamic idea.”
And the group has two pledges, one public and the other private, so the public pledge is the first and most important step to be a member in the group, while the private pledge shall be on the holy Qura’an with a gun above to someone unknown in a dark room and this is actually a military pledge with special rituals where specific persons are chosen to do top confidential missions.
Mahmoud Sabbagh in his book “fact of the special organization”: “and then said to him, the betrayed covenant will be dismissed from the group and will be let to the hell and the evil fate.”
“The one should not submit to any action affecting the course of his life such as marriage and divorce before getting a permit by the leadership, the Emir of the group,” added Sabbagh.
In the past, during the constrictive security measures, they replace the direct pledge with the indirect pledge through the offices of the administrative committees. For example, in the Muslim Brotherhood group, the hopeful member can pledge to someone on behalf of the leader. In the current era of technological development, the pledge of allegiance can be via voice messages and what’saap messages.
Most of the political Islam leaders think themselves above human beings and that they were chosen to succeed God in his land, and that their inauguration was neither random nor improvisational, but was fatalistic from above seven heavens, and all the narrations of the last moments in the history of these leaders recorded the state of transcendence and psychological narcissism in them including Sayed Qutb, Shukri Mustafa, Mohammed Amin Abdul Fattah and Yahia Hashem in addition to other leaders who feel emotional differentiation and thus need to be isolated from the society .
This pledge made Shoukri Mustafa considers his group Altakfir Walhijra a legitimate representative for Islam and that he is the deputy of the God in His land, and he had been followed by dozens of extremists such as Osama bin laden, al – Zawahiri, Albughdadi and Alaqurshi.
Political Islam currents have employed allegiance pledge as a legitimate concept of Islam as a religion to guarantee loyalty to an organizational entity, religious group or political party in order to achieve their goals, especially under the cloak of Islam and Sharia.
Movements of political Islam had become overwhelmed by the idea of allegiance since the fall of the Caliphate of the Ottoman in 1924, and actually this affected the concept of citizenship because of which the member loses his loyalty to the homeland and becomes only loyal to the group and Emir.
Actually, various currents of political Islam keep the pledge of allegiance in mind especially because the process of joining these organizations and groups isn’t an easy matter as the one first must have faith in their ideas and goals.
As for the Egyptian political Islam “jihad” groups, the pledge says ” I pledge to abide by hearing and by obedience in the better and worse and to keep God’s law in mind and to sacrifice all I have spirit, soul, money and sons to empower my religion.”
This pledge was gradually moved to the Islamic Group especially when it allied with the Jihad organization and conspired to assassinate Egyptian President Mohamed Anwar Elsadat in coordination with Mohamed Abdelslam Farag, Khaled Elslambouly, Tarek Elzomor and Aboud Elzomor.
The Islamic Group is still taking the pledge of allegiance from its members among themselves until now. Last appointment was the selection of the group’s leader, Osama Hafez, after the death of his predecessor Essam Derbala in August 2015. .
According to Assem Abdelmaged, member of Islamic Group Shura Council, the allegiance pledge in the Islamic Group still exists but neither written nor spoken, it is a moral commitment rather.
Some Salafi currents are based on the” allegiance of followers”, this is a pledge of allegiance not binding because they are currents of thoughts and not regulatory entities. According to Sheikh Mohammed Saed Ruslan, one of the salafists’ leaders in Egypt, the Salafists in Alexandria give allegiance pledge to their leader Mohamed Abdel Fattah Abu Idris, then Yasser Burhami came out, stressing that it is a pledge of allegiance to righteousness and piety.
The pledge of Jihadist salafi means the explicit disbelief in governments and its relevant civil legislations and constitutions and the various aspects of the state of modern civility. Indeed, it is a pledge inciting the adoption of secret work and bloodshed.
Away from the traditional pledge, Al-Qaeda Organization has an exaggerated pledge originated from their references Faris Al Shuweil Zahrani and Abu Jandal Azadi “. It is a pledge whose womb brought the” suicide” cells and cells of immersion.
Since the emergence of SIS, it has been resorting to the electronic pledge in order to expand the circle of followers in different parts of the world, which led to the spread of ” allegiance of organizations and their tributaries,” such as the pledge of allegiance taken to the ISIS by Bokouhram “, ” Almorabtoun” in North Africa and Ansar Beit Almaqdes in Egypt’s Sinai.
This issue of “pledge of allegiance” is one of the tools that documented conflicts and differences between ISIS and al – Qaeda over the past years.